Scientific guidelines

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The following guidelines have been released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). They are listed in reverse chronological order.

Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections were developed for healthcare personnel who insert intravascular catheters and for persons responsible for surveillance and control of infections in hospital, outpatient, and home healthcare settings.

Guideline for the prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings addresses prevention and control of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in healthcare settings, and includes specific recommendations for implementation, performance measurement, and surveillance.
Guideline for prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections reviews the available evidence on CAUTI prevention for patients requiring chronic indwelling catheters and individuals who can be managed with alternative methods of urinary drainage.

Guidance for control of infections with carbapenem-resistant or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in acute care facilities provides new guidance for CRE infection prevention and control in an effort to limit the further emergence of these organisms.

Guidance on public reporting of healthcare-associated infections: recommendations is based on established principles for public health and healthcare-associated infection (HAI) reporting systems. It is intended to assist those tasked with designing and implementing public reporting systems for HAIs.

Guideline for disinfection and sterilization in healthcare facilities presents evidence-based recommendations on the preferred methods for cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of patient-care medical devices and for cleaning and disinfecting the healthcare environment.

Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals
updates and expands the 1996 Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals.

2006 guide for management of multidrug resistant organisms in healthcare settings provides guidance for the implementation of strategies and practices to prevent the transmission of MRSA, VRE, and other MDROs.

Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in healthcare facilities updates tuberculosis (TB) control recommendations reflecting shifts in the epidemiology of TB, advances in scientific understanding, and changes in healthcare practice that have occurred in the United States.

Guideline for preventing healthcare-associated pneumonia, 2003 updates, expands, and replaces the previously published Guideline for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia.

Guideline for infection control in dental healthcare settings consolidates previous recommendations and adds new ones for infection control in dental settings.

Guideline for environmental infection control in healthcare facilities is a compilation of recommendations for the prevention and control of infectious diseases that are associated with healthcare environments.

Guideline for hand hygiene in healthcare settings provides healthcare personnel with a review of data recommendations to promote improved hand hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms.

Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection is intended for use by personnel directly responsible for the prevention of healthcare-associated surgical site infections.

Recommendations for preventing the spread of vancomycin resistance provides recommendations for preventing and controlling the spread of vancomycin resistance, with a special focus on vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

Other scientific publications and guidelines

The following guidelines and publications have been issued by organizations other than the CDC.

Guideline for disinfection and sterilization of prion-contaminated medical instruments presents the current knowledge on disinfection and sterilization on prion-contaminated instruments, which exhibit an unusual resistance to conventional physical decontamination methods. 

APIC/SHEA Guideline: Infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility (LTCF) reviews the literature on infections and infection control programs in the LTCF.

APIC/CHICA-Canada infection prevention, control, and epidemiology: Professionals and practice standards was developed by the Practice Standards Task Force for the infection control profession, to provide written reference from which to define infection control competency.

Multi-society guideline for reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes was developed as a result of a joint meeting with SHEA and others. APIC actively participated in its development and review.